Depending on the type of installation, you may need to do the following tasks:
Installed using binary files or compiling from source¶
|Initialize the data dictionary|
|Test the server|
|Set service to start at boot time|
Initialize the data directory¶
If you install the server using either the source distribution or generic binary distribution files, the data directory is not initialized, and you must run the initialization process after installation.
mysqld with either option does the following:
Verifies the existence of the data directory
Initializes the system tablespace and related structures
Creates system tables including grant tables, time zone tables, and server-side help tables
You should run the following steps with the
Navigate to the MySQL directory. The example uses the default location.
$ cd /usr/local/mysql
Create a directory for the MySQL files. The secure_file_priv uses the directory path as a value.
$ mkdir mydata
mysqluser account should have the
drwxr-x---permissions. Four sections define the permissions; file or directory, User, Group, and Others.
The first character designates if the permissions are for a file or directory. The first character is
dfor a directory.
The rest of the sections are specified in three-character sets.
Permission User Group Other Read Yes Yes No Write Yes No No Execute Yes Yes No
Run the command to initialize the data directory.
$ bin/mysqld --initialize
Test the server¶
After you have initialized the data directory, and the server is started, you can run tests on the server.
This section assumes you have used the default installation settings. If you have modified the installation, navigate to the installation location. You can also add the location by Setting the Environment Variables.
You can use the mysqladmin client to access the server.
If you have issues connecting to the server, use the
root user and the root account password.
$ sudo mysqladmin -u root -p version
Enter password: mysql Ver 8.0.19-10 for debian-linux-gnu on x86_64 (Percona Server (GPL), Release '10', Revision 'f446c04') ... Server version 8.0.19-10 Protocol version 10 Connection Localhost via UNIX socket UNIX socket /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock Uptime: 4 hours 58 min 10 section Threads: 2 Questions: 16 Slow queries: 0 Opens: 139 Flush tables: 3 Open tables: 59 Queries per second avg: 0.0000
Use mysqlshow to display database and table information.
$ sudo mysqlshow -u root -p
Enter password: +---------------------+ | Databases | +=====================+ | information_schema | +---------------------+ | mysql | +---------------------+ | performance_schema | +---------------------+ | sys | +---------------------+
Set service to run at boot time¶
After a generic binary installation, manually configure systemd support.
The following commands start, check the status, and stop the server:
$ sudo systemctl start mysqld $ sudo systemctl status mysqld $ sudo systemctl stop mysqld
Run the following command to start the service at boot time:
$ sudo systemctl enable mysqld
$ sudo systemctl disable mysqld
|Update the root password|
|Secure the server|
|Populate the time zone tables|
Update the root password¶
During an installation on Debian/Ubuntu, you are prompted to enter a root password. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux and derivatives, you update the root password after installation.
Restart the server with the
--skip-grant-tables option to allow access without a password. This option is insecure. This option also disables remote connections.
$ sudo systemctl stop mysqld $ sudo systemctl set-environment MYSQLD_OPTS="--skip-grant-tables" $ sudo systemctl start mysqld $ mysql
Reload the grant tables to be able to run the
ALTER USER statement. Enter a password that satisfies the current policy.
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES; mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'rootPassword_12'; mysql> exit
ERROR 1819 (HY000) Your password does not satisfy the current policy, run the following command to see policy requirement.
mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';
Stop the server, remove the
--skip-grant-tables option, start the server, and log into the server with the updated password.
$ sudo systemctl stop mysqld $ sudo systemctl unset-environment MYSQLD_OPTS $ sudo systemctl start mysqld $ mysql -u root -p
Secure the server¶
The mysql_secure_installation script improves the security of the instance.
The script does the following:
Disallows remote login for
Removes anonymous users
Reloads the privilege tables
The following statement runs the script:
Populate the time zone tables¶
The time zone system tables are the following:
If you install the server using either the source distribution or the generic binary distribution files, the installation creates the time zone tables, but the tables are not populated.
The mysql_tzinfo_to_sql program
populates the tables from the
zoneinfo directory data available in Linux.
A common method to populate the tables is to add the zoneinfo directory path
mysql_tzinfo_to_sql and then send the output into
the mysql system schema.
The example assumes you are running the command with the
The account must have the privileges for modifying the
$ mysql_tzinfo_to_sql /usr/share/zoneinfo | mysql -u root -p -D mysql