Fast Updates with TokuDB¶
Update intensive applications can have their throughput limited by the random read capacity of the storage system. The cause of the throughput limit is the read-modify-write algorithm that MySQL uses to process update statements (read a row from the storage engine, apply the updates to it, write the new row back to the storage engine).
To address this throughput limit, TokuDB provides an experimental fast update feature, which uses a different update algorithm. Update expressions of the SQL statement are encoded into tiny programs that are stored in an update Fractal Tree message. This update message is injected into the root of the Fractal Tree index. Eventually, these update messages reach a leaf node, where the update programs are applied to the row. Since messages are moved between Fractal Tree levels in batches, the cost of reading in the leaf node is amortized over many update messages.
This feature is available for
INSERT statements, and can be
turned ON/OFF separately for them with use of two variables. Variable
tokudb_enable_fast_update variable toggles fast updates for the
UPDATE, and tokudb_enable_fast_upsert does the same for
Fast updates are activated instead of normal MySQL read-modify-write updates if the executed expression meets the number of conditions.
fast updates can be activated for a statement or a mixed replication,
a primary key must be defined for the involved table,
both simple and compound primary keys are supported, and
varcharare the allowed data types for them,
updated fields should have
fields that are part of any key should be not updated,
clustering keys are not allowed,
triggers should be not involved,
supported update expressions should belong to one of the following types:
x = constant
x = x + constant
x = x - constant
x = if (x=0,0,x-1)
x = x + values
Usage Specifics and Examples¶
Following example creates a table that associates event identifiers with their count:
CREATE TABLE t (
event_id bigint unsigned NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
event_count bigint unsigned NOT NULL
Many graph applications that map onto relational tables can use duplicate key inserts and updates to maintain the graph. For example, one can update the meta-data associated with a link in the graph using duplicate key insertions. If the affected rows is not used by the application, then the insertion or update can be marked and executed as a fast insertion or a fast update.
If it is not known if the event identifier (represented by event_id) already
exists in the table, then
INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE ... statement
can insert it if not existing, or increment its event_count otherwise. Here
is an example with duplicate key insertion statement, where
%id is some
specific event_id value:
INSERT INTO t VALUES (%id, 1)
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE event_count=event_count+1;
If the event id’s are random, then the throughput of this application would be
limited by the random read capacity of the storage system since each
statement has to determine if this event_id exists in the table.
TokuDB replaces the primary key existence check with an insertion of an “upsert” message into the Fractal Tree index. This “upsert” message contains a copy of the row and a program that increments event_count. As the Fractal Tree buffer’s get filled, this “upsert” message is flushed down the tree. Eventually, the message reaches a leaf node and gets executed there. If the key exists in the leaf node, then the event_count is incremented. Otherwise, the new row is inserted into the leaf node.
If event_id is known to exist in the table, then
UPDATE statement can be
used to increment its event_count (once again, specific event_id value is
written here as
UPDATE t SET event_count=event_count+1
TokuDB generates an “update” message from the
UPDATE statement and its
update expression trees, and inserts this message into the Fractal Tree index.
When the message eventually reaches the leaf node, the increment program is
extracted from the message and executed.