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Expanded Fast Index Creation

Note

This feature implementation is considered BETA quality.

Percona has implemented several changes related to MySQL’s fast index creation feature. Fast index creation was implemented in MySQL as a way to speed up the process of adding or dropping indexes on tables with many rows.

This feature implements a session variable that enables extended fast index creation. Besides optimizing DDL directly, expand_fast_index_creation may also optimize index access for subsequent DML statements because using it results in much less fragmented indexes.

mysqldump

A new option, --innodb-optimize-keys, was implemented in mysqldump. It changes the way InnoDB tables are dumped, so that secondary and foreign keys are created after loading the data, thus taking advantage of fast index creation. More specifically:

  • KEY, UNIQUE KEY, and CONSTRAINT clauses are omitted from CREATE TABLE statements corresponding to InnoDB tables.

  • An additional ALTER TABLE is issued after dumping the data, in order to create the previously omitted keys.

ALTER TABLE

When ALTER TABLE requires a table copy, secondary keys are now dropped and recreated later, after copying the data. The following restrictions apply:

  • Only non-unique keys can be involved in this optimization.

  • If the table contains foreign keys, or a foreign key is being added as a part of the current ALTER TABLE statement, the optimization is disabled for all keys.

OPTIMIZE TABLE

Internally, OPTIMIZE TABLE is mapped to ALTER TABLE ... ENGINE=innodb for InnoDB tables. As a consequence, it now also benefits from fast index creation, with the same restrictions as for ALTER TABLE.

Caveats

InnoDB fast index creation uses temporary files in tmpdir for all indexes being created. So make sure you have enough tmpdir space when using expand_fast_index_creation. It is a session variable, so you can temporarily switch it off if you are short on tmpdir space and/or don’t want this optimization to be used for a specific table.

There’s also a number of cases when this optimization is not applicable:

* `UNIQUE` indexes in `ALTER TABLE` are ignored to enforce uniqueness where necessary when copying the data to a temporary table;


* `ALTER TABLE` and `OPTIMIZE TABLE` always process tables containing foreign keys as if expand_fast_index_creation is OFF to avoid dropping keys that are part of a FOREIGN KEY constraint;


* **mysqldump --innodb-optimize-keys** ignores foreign keys because InnoDB requires a full table rebuild on foreign key changes. So adding them back with a separate `ALTER TABLE` after restoring the data from a dump would actually make the restore slower;


* **mysqldump --innodb-optimize-keys** ignores indexes on `AUTO_INCREMENT` columns, because they must be indexed, so it is impossible to temporarily drop the corresponding index;


* **mysqldump --innodb-optimize-keys** ignores the first UNIQUE index on non-nullable columns when the table has no `PRIMARY KEY` defined, because in this case InnoDB picks such an index as the clustered one.

Version Specific Information

  • Percona Server for MySQL 5.7.10-1: Feature ported from Percona Server for MySQL 5.6

System Variables

expand_fast_index_creation

Option Description
Command-line Yes
Config file No
Scope Local/Global
Dynamic Yes
Data type Boolean
Default ON/OFF

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