How Percona XtraBackup works¶
Percona XtraBackup is based on InnoDB’s crash-recovery functionality. It copies your InnoDB data files, which results in data that is internally inconsistent; but then it performs crash recovery on the files to make them a consistent, usable database again.
This works because InnoDB maintains a redo log, also called the transaction log. This contains a record of every change to InnoDB data. When InnoDB starts, it inspects the data files and the transaction log, and performs two steps. It applies committed transaction log entries to the data files, and it performs an undo operation on any transactions that modified data but did not commit.
Percona XtraBackup 8.0.30-23 adds the --register-redo-log-consumer parameter. This parameter is disabled by default. When enabled, the parameter lets Percona XtraBackup register as a redo log consumer at the start of the backup. The server does not remove a redo log that Percona XtraBackup (the consumer) has not yet copied. The consumer reads the redo log and manually advances the log sequence number (LSN). The server blocks the writes during the process. Based on the redo log consumption, the server determines when it can purge the log.
Percona XtraBackup works by remembering the LSN when it starts, and then copying away the data files. It takes some time to do this, so if the files are changing, then they reflect the state of the database at different points in time. At the same time, Percona XtraBackup runs a background process that watches the transaction log files, and copies changes from it. Percona XtraBackup needs to do this continually because the transaction logs are written in a round-robin fashion, and can be reused after a while. Percona XtraBackup needs the transaction log records for every change to the data files since it began execution.
Percona XtraBackup uses Backup locks
where available as a lightweight alternative to
FLUSH TABLES WITH READ
LOCK. This feature is available in Percona Server for MySQL 5.6+. MySQL 8.0 allows
acquiring an instance level backup lock via the
LOCK INSTANCE FOR BACKUP
Locking is only done for MyISAM and other non-InnoDB tables after Percona XtraBackup finishes backing up all InnoDB/XtraDB data and logs. Percona XtraBackup uses this automatically to copy non-InnoDB data to avoid blocking DML queries that modify InnoDB tables.
BACKUP_ADMIN privilege is required to query the
performance_schema_log_status for either
INSTANCE FOR BACKUP or
LOCK TABLES FOR BACKUP.
xtrabackup tries to avoid backup locks and
FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK
when the instance contains only InnoDB tables. In this case, xtrabackup
obtains binary log coordinates from
TABLES WITH READ LOCK is still required in MySQL 8.0 when xtrabackup is
started with the
log_status table in Percona
Server for MySQL 8.0 is extended to include the relay log coordinates, so no locks are
needed even with the
When backup locks are supported by the server, xtrabackup first copies
InnoDB data, runs the
LOCK TABLES FOR BACKUP and then copies the MyISAM
tables. Once this is done, the backup of the files will
begin. It will backup .frm, .MRG, .MYD, .MYI, .CSM,
After that xtrabackup will use
LOCK BINLOG FOR BACKUP to block all
operations that might change either binary log position or
Exec_Gtid_Set (i.e. source binary log coordinates
corresponding to the current SQL thread state on a replication replica) as
SHOW MASTER/SLAVE STATUS. xtrabackup will then finish copying
the REDO log files and fetch the binary log coordinates. After this is completed
xtrabackup will unlock the binary log and tables.
Finally, the binary log position will be printed to
STDERR and xtrabackup
will exit returning 0 if all went OK.
Note that the
STDERR of xtrabackup is not written in any file. You will
have to redirect it to a file, e.g.,
xtrabackup OPTIONS 2> backupout.log.
It will also create the following files in the directory of the backup.
prepare phase, Percona XtraBackup performs crash recovery against
the copied data files, using the copied transaction log file. After this is
done, the database is ready to restore and use.
The backed-up MyISAM and InnoDB tables will be eventually consistent with
each other, because after the prepare (recovery) process, InnoDB’s data is
rolled forward to the point at which the backup completed, not rolled back to
the point at which it started. This point in time matches where the
TABLES WITH READ LOCK was taken, so the MyISAM data and the prepared
InnoDB data are in sync.
The xtrabackup offers many features not mentioned in the preceding explanation. The functionality of each tool is explained in more detail further in this manual. In brief, though, the tools enable you to do operations such as streaming and incremental backups with various combinations of copying the data files, copying the log files, and applying the logs to the data.
Restoring a backup¶
xtrabackup will read from the
my.cnf the variables datadir,
innodb_log_group_home_dir and check that the directories exist.
It will copy the MyISAM tables, indexes, etc. (.MRG, .MYD,
.MYI, .CSM, .CSV,
par files) first, InnoDB tables and indexes next and the log files at
last. It will preserve file’s attributes when copying them, you may have to
change the files’ ownership to
mysql before starting the database server, as
they will be owned by the user who created the backup.
Alternatively, the --move-back option may be used to restore a backup. This option is similar to --copy-back with the only difference that instead of copying files it moves them to their target locations. As this option removes backup files, it must be used with caution. It is useful in cases when there is not enough free disk space to hold both data files and their backup copies.