xtrabackup supports incremental backups. It copies only the data that has changed since the last full backup. You can perform multiple incremental backups between each full backup. You can set up a backup process with a full backup once a week and an incremental backup every day, or full backups every day and incremental backups every hour.
Incremental backups on the MyRocks storage engine do not determine if an earlier full backup or incremental backup contains the same files. Percona XtraBackup copies all of the MyRocks files each time it takes a backup.
The write-ahead log (WAL) is immutable and append-only. All writes to the WAL are sequential. Every record has a unique, uniformly increasing log sequence number (LSN) which is assigned to page changes. Each page contains a Page LSN that shows the most recent update to that page. An incremental backup copies each page whose LSN is newer than the previous incremental or the full backup’s LSN. An incremental backup copies each page whose LSN is newer than the previous incremental or full backup’s LSN. An algorithm finds the pages that match the criteria. The algorithm reads the data pages and checks the page LSN.
Incremental backups do not actually compare the data files to the previous
backup’s data files. In fact, you can use
--incremental-lsn to perform
an incremental backup without even having the previous backup, if you know its
LSN. Incremental backups simply read the pages and compare their
LSN to the last backup’s LSN. You still need a full backup to
recover the incremental changes, however; without a full backup to act as a
base, the incremental backups are useless.
Use the changed page tracking algorithm¶
Percona XtraBackup 8.0.30 removes the algorithm that used the changed page tracking feature in Percona Server for MySQL. Percona Server for MySQL 8.0.27 deprecated the changed page tracking feature.
With PXB 8.0.27 or earlier, another algorithm enabled the Percona Server for MySQL changed page tracking feature. The algorithm generates a bitmap file. The xtrabackup binary uses that bitmap file to read only those pages needed for the incremental backup. This method potentially saves resources. The backup enables the algorithm by default if the xtrabackup binary discovers the bitmap file. You can override the algorithm with
--incremental-force-scan which forces a read of all pages even if the bitmap file is available.
Create an incremental backup¶
To make an incremental backup, begin with a full backup as usual. The
xtrabackup binary writes a file called
xtrabackup_checkpoints into the
backup’s target directory. This file contains a line showing the
which is the database’s LSN at the end of the backup. Create the
full backup with a command such as the following:
$ xtrabackup --backup --target-dir=/data/backups/base --datadir=/var/lib/mysql/
If you look at the
xtrabackup_checkpoints file, you should see contents
similar to the following:
backup_type = full-backuped from_lsn = 0 to_lsn = 1291135
Now that you have a full backup, you can make an incremental backup based on it. Use a command such as the following:
$ xtrabackup --backup --target-dir=/data/backups/inc1 \ --incremental-basedir=/data/backups/base --datadir=/var/lib/mysql/
/data/backups/inc1/ directory should now contain delta files, such
test/table1.ibd.delta. These represent the
changes since the
LSN 1291135. If you examine the
xtrabackup_checkpoints file in this directory, you should see something
similar to the following:
backup_type = incremental from_lsn = 1291135 to_lsn = 1291340
The meaning should be self-evident. It’s now possible to use this directory as the base for yet another incremental backup:
$ xtrabackup --backup --target-dir=/data/backups/inc2 \ --incremental-basedir=/data/backups/inc1 --datadir=/var/lib/mysql/
Prepare the incremental backups¶
--prepare step for incremental backups is not the same as for
normal backups. In normal backups, two types of operations are performed to make
the database consistent: committed transactions are replayed from the log file
against the data files, and uncommitted transactions are rolled back. You must
skip the rollback of uncommitted transactions when preparing a backup, because
transactions that were uncommitted at the time of your backup may be in
progress, and it is likely that they will be committed in the next incremental
backup. You should use the
--apply-log-only option to prevent the
If you do not use the
--apply-log-only option to prevent the
rollback phase, then your incremental backups will be useless. After
transactions have been rolled back, further incremental backups cannot be
Beginning with the full backup you created, you can prepare it, and then apply the incremental differences to it. Recall that you have the following backups:
/data/backups/base /data/backups/inc1 /data/backups/inc2
To prepare the base backup, you need to run
--prepare as usual, but
prevent the rollback phase:
$ xtrabackup --prepare --apply-log-only --target-dir=/data/backups/base
101107 20:49:43 InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 1291135
The log sequence number should match the
to_lsn of the base backup, which
you saw previously.
This backup is actually safe to restore as-is now, even though the rollback phase has been skipped. If you restore it and start MySQL, InnoDB will detect that the rollback phase was not performed, and it will do that in the background, as it usually does for a crash recovery upon start. It will notify you that the database was not shut down normally.
To apply the first incremental backup to the full backup, you should use the following command:
$ xtrabackup --prepare --apply-log-only --target-dir=/data/backups/base \ --incremental-dir=/data/backups/inc1
This applies the delta files to the files in
rolls them forward in time to the time of the incremental backup. It then
applies the redo log as usual to the result. The final data is in
/data/backups/base, not in the incremental directory.
incremental backup from 1291135 is enabled. xtrabackup: cd to /data/backups/base/ xtrabackup: This target seems to be already prepared. xtrabackup: xtrabackup_logfile detected: size=2097152, start_lsn=(1291340) Applying /data/backups/inc1/ibdata1.delta ... Applying /data/backups/inc1/test/table1.ibd.delta ... .... snip 101107 20:56:30 InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 1291340
Again, the LSN should match what you saw from your earlier inspection of the
first incremental backup. If you restore the files from
/data/backups/base, you should see the state of the database as of the
first incremental backup.
Preparing the second incremental backup is a similar process: apply the deltas to the (modified) base backup, and you will roll its data forward in time to the point of the second incremental backup:
$ xtrabackup --prepare --target-dir=/data/backups/base \ --incremental-dir=/data/backups/inc2
--apply-log-only should be used when merging all incrementals
except the last one. That’s why the previous line doesn’t contain the
--apply-log-only option. Even if the
used on the last step, backup would still be consistent but in that case
server would perform the rollback phase.
If you wish to avoid the notice that InnoDB was not shut down normally, when
you applied the desired deltas to the base backup, you can run
--prepare again without disabling the rollback phase.
Restore incremental backups¶
After preparing the incremental backups, the base directory contains the same
data as the full backup. To restoring this backup, you can use this command:
xtrabackup --copy-back --target-dir=BASE-DIR
You may have to change the ownership as detailed on Restoring a Backup.
Incremental streaming backups using xbstream¶
Incremental streaming backups can be performed with the xbstream streaming option. Currently backups are packed in custom xbstream format. With this feature, you need to take a BASE backup as well.
Make a base backup¶
$ xtrabackup --backup --target-dir=/data/backups
Take a local backup¶
$ xtrabackup --backup --incremental-lsn=LSN-number --stream=xbstream --target-dir=./ > incremental.xbstream
Unpack the backup¶
$ xbstream -x < incremental.xbstream
Take a local backup and streaming it to the remote server and unpack it¶
$ xtrabackup --backup --incremental-lsn=LSN-number --stream=xbstream --target-dir=./ $ ssh user@hostname " cat - | xbstream -x -C > /backup-dir/"
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